Luke Liu 英语词根

学习英语,玩转新疆

« 国殇我每天写一篇英语词根的文章,每周写一篇玩转新疆的文章,欢迎你经常过来看看 »

志愿者翻译行动----如何扶持灾后幸存者

    这段时间,网上又开始了大规模的口水战,批驳救援不及时,批评专家不专业,批评政府不积极,批评建筑不结实,批评明星不捐款,都是嘴上的功夫,没有实际的行动;Luke不喜欢这样的行为,看到小卡介绍译言招募志愿者紧急翻译一个国外的救援方法的项目,Luke看了,非常的好,很理性,很科学,于是赶快加入,不参加口水战,而是实际行动,做自己能做的事情帮助受灾人民,是正事,下面是今天翻译的内容,如果你也对译言的这个项目感兴趣也希望贡献一份力量,可以去看一下,地址是:http://pro.yeeyan.com/wiki/

 

Psychological First Aid: How You Can Support Well-Being in Disaster Victims

People often experience strong and unpleasant emotional and physical responses to disasters. Reactions may include combinations of confusion, fear, hopelessness,helplessness, sleeplessness, physical pain, anxiety, anger,grief, shock, aggressiveness, mistrustfulness, guilt, shame,shaken religious faith, and loss of confidence in self or others. There is consensus among international disaster experts and researchers that psychological first aid can help alleviate painful emotions and reduce further harm from initial reactions to disasters. Your actions and interactions with others can help provide psychosocial first aid to people in distress.Psychological first aid creates and sustains an environment of (1) safety, (2) calming, (3) connectedness to others, (4) self efficacy — or empowerment, and (5) hopefulness.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID

DO:

  • Do help people meet basic needs for food & shelter, and obtain emergency medical attention. Provide repeated,simple and accurate information on how to obtain these. (safety)
  • Do listen to people who wish to share their stories and emotions and remember there is no wrong or right way to feel (calming).
  • Do be friendly and compassionate even if people are being difficult (calming).
  • Do provide accurate information about the disaster or trauma and the relief efforts. This will help people to understand the situation (calming).
  • Do help people contact friends or loved ones (connectedness).
  • Do keep families together. Keep children with parents or other close relatives whenever possible. (connectedness)
  • Do give practical suggestions that steer people towards helping themselves (self-efficacy).
  • Do engage people in meeting their own needs (self-efficacy).
  • Do find out the types and locations of government and non-government services and direct people to services that are available (hopefulness).
  • If you know that more help and services are on the way do remind people of this when they express fear or worry (hopefulness)

 

DON’T:

  • Don’t force people to share their stories with you,especially very personal details (this may decrease calmness in people who are not ready to share their experiences).
  • Don’t give simple reassurances like “everything will be ok” or “at least you survived” (statements like these tend to diminish calmness).
  • Don’t tell people what you think they should be feeling, thinking or doing now or how they should have acted earlier (this decreases self-efficacy).
  • Don’t tell people why you think they have suffered by giving reasons about their personal behaviors or beliefs (this also decreases self-efficacy).
  • Don’t make promises that may not be kept (un-kept promises decrease hope).
  • Don’t criticise existing services or relief activities in front of people in need of these services (this may decrease hopefulness or decrease calming).

 

Disaster Response Education and Training Project, Center for the Study of Traumatic StressFor more information see www.usuhs.mil/csts/

 

紧急心理援助:如何帮助遇难者中的幸存者

对于灾难的反应,一般幸存者都会有很强烈的不适感,其中包括情感上和生理上的。可能包含以下各种反应的组合:害怕,无望,无助,失眠,身体疼痛,焦 虑,生气,悲伤,震惊,富攻击性,不信任他人,罪恶感,羞愧,宗教信仰动摇,对自己和别人失去信心等。国际灾难救援专家和研究人员有一个共识就是紧急心理 援助可以缓和痛苦情绪和减少因为灾难带来的伤害。最为救援者,你的行为以及与生还者的交流有助于这些痛苦的人们得到紧急心理援助。紧急心理援助应该营造并 维持一个这样的环境:(1)安全,(2)镇静,(3)与他人保持联系,(4)自助或者自强,(5)充满希望

 

 紧急心理援助一定要做的事情:

  • 一定要满足生还者基本的食物及避难场所的需要以及一些紧急医疗救护。还要不断提供简单的、准确的如何取得这些设施的信息。(安全方面)
  • 一定要聆听生还者他们的故事和情感的讲述,记住,在感受方面没有对和错。(安慰方面)
  • 一定要友好和富有同情心,即使他们很难相处。(安慰方面)
  • 一定要给生还者提供准确的关于灾难及创伤的最新信息以及救援情况。这会使得生还者了解目前的情况。(安慰方面)
  • 一定要帮助他们联系朋友及亲人。(联系方面)
  • 一定要让一家人待在一起,尽可能的让孩子与父母以及其他近亲在一起。(联系方面)
  • 一定要给他们切实可行的建议使得他们可以帮助自己。(自主方面)
  • 一定要让他们尝试去获得自己需要的东西。(自主方面)
  • 一定要知道政府或者非政府组织目前所提供救援服务的种类及所在位置,并且要引导生还者可以自己到提供服务的地方。(充满希望方面)
  • 一定要在生还者表现出恐惧和担心的时候告诉他们还有更多的救援正在到来,你已经得到更多的救援确实正在到来。(充满希望方面)

 

紧急心理援助一定不要做的事情:

  • 一定不要强迫生还者向你诉说他们的经历,尤其是很个人的细节(否则使得还没有准备好诉说的人变得更加情绪不稳定)
  • 一定不要只给简单的安慰比如:“一切都会好起来的”或者“至少你还活着”(这样的话可能会使得生还者更加情绪不稳定)
  • 一定不要告诉生还者你认为他们现在应该有什么样的感受、应该有什么样的想法和如何去做,以及早先他们应该怎么做(这会降低他们的自主能力)
  • 一定不要对幸存者说是因为他们的个人行为和信仰给他们带来了灾难(这也会降低他们的自主能力)
  • 一定不要对幸存者许下不能实现的诺言(不能实现的诺言会磨灭幸存者的希望)
  • 一定不要在需要救援服务的幸存者面前抱怨和批评救援行动(这样的行为会消磨幸存者的希望和降低他们的忍耐力)

应对灾难教育和训练项目

更多信息请访问www.usuhs.mil/csts/

  • 相关文章:

发表评论:

◎欢迎参与讨论,请在这里发表您的看法、交流您的观点。

日历

最新评论及回复

最近发表

热文排行

年度排行

月度排行

累计排行

读者推荐

Powered By Z-Blog 1.8 Devo Build 80201

联系邮箱:LukeLiu.info@gmail.com 本站采用创作共用版权协议(CC License), 要求署名、非商业用途和原文保持一致. 转载本站内容必须也遵循“署名-非商业用途-保持一致”的创作共用协议,不得篡改作者署名.