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美国国家地理推荐的摄影构图方法文章之1

几年前的翻译习作,希望对大家有点用。
Luke
Guidelines for 
Better Photographic Composition

优秀摄影构图导读

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  Introduction

   简介

  Simplicity

   力求简约

  The Rule of Thirds

   三分法

  Lines

   用好线条

  Balance

   掌握平衡

  Framing

   用好框图

  Avoiding Mergers

   避免干扰

  Discussion

   讨论

 
 
 
Copyright notice: originality of this tutorial is unknown. Probably it's  
KODAK, but they replaced this tutorial with another one a long time ago, 
so it could be considered a public domain. Photos in this tutorail are 
not a public domain.

版权提示:此文的出处不祥,也许出自柯达公司网站,但在很久前柯达公司用另外一个教程替换了这个教程,所以,可以认为此文不受版权保护。但此文中的图片不可以认为不受版权保护。

 
 
 
 
Guidelines for Better Photographic Composition: Introduction

优秀摄影构图导读:简介

 

 

 

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你是否一直在琢磨,为什么有些图片比其他的更有吸引力? 

Have you ever wondered why some pictures are more appealing than others . . . .

 

 

为什么有些图片就可以被悬挂在展览馆里,展示上几个月甚至是几年,被成千上万的人们所欣赏? 

. . . why some are left hanging in galleries for months or even years to be enjoyed by thousands?

 

 

你是否一直想知道,为什么一些摄影师总是可以赢得鉴赏家和评论家的一贯好评? 

Have you ever wondered why some photographers consistently win the praises of judges and critics?

 

 

这些图片之所以比其他图片出色的原因之一,是因为这些图片的构图都非常非常讲究。本教程就是关于如何做好优秀构图,讨论如何进行构图,从而提升你的照片的质量。 

One of the main reasons why some pictures are more outstanding than others is because of their strong composition. That's what this program is all about. We're going to consider how composition can improve your photographs.

 

 

好的构图不仅仅在摄影技艺里讲究,它已经有很长久的历史,远在摄影技术还没有被发明的2000年前,希腊人和罗马人就已经开始使用构图法了!在他们的建筑中,优秀的构图随处可见。 

Good composition is a subject with a history of its own. The Greeks and Romans were practicing it 2,000 years before photography! It's obvious in their architecture.

 

 

当今,构图仍然是现代建筑设计中的一个重要部分。

对摄影构图有一个简单的定义是: 在图片区域内,适当的选择和安排被拍摄物体的各个部分,从而让人看着很舒服。 

And today, composition continues as an important part of contemporary architecture. One definition for photographic composition is simple: the pleasing selection and arrangement of subjects within the picture area.

 

 

构图的时候,有时是将某个形状或者物体放在画面中的某个特定部位,有时是选择某一个角度。你可以轻轻移动你的相机从而改变构图。

一些随意的抓拍有时候却是个很好的构图,但是大多数优秀的照片都不是那么很容易得到的,而是创作出来的。你如何创作出一张优秀的图片?首先需要学习的是如何进行很好的构图。 
 

Some arrangements are made by placing figures or objects in certain positions. Others are made by choosing a point of view. You can shift your camera very slightly and make quite a change in composition.

 
Some snapshots may turn out to have good composition, but most good pictures are created. How do you create a picture? First learn the guidelines for good composition.

 

 

一旦你学完本教程,你会认识到,如果想得到一张构图很好的图片,需要进行很仔细的计划和耐心的等待。

你会发现,在你试图拍一幅不错图片的时候,如何进行好的构图,是你思考的一个很重要部分,而后很快,构图思考将是你拍摄时候自然而然的事情了。 

After you've learned the guidelines, you'll realize that well-composed pictures often take careful planning and sometimes patient waiting.

 
You'll find that the composition guidelines will become part of your thinking when you're looking for pictures, and soon they will become second nature to you.

在这个教程里,我们将讨论:

In this program, we'll discuss:

 
   力求简约

  Simplicity

   三分法则

  The Rule of Thirds

   如何使用线条

  Lines

   保持平衡

  Balance

   如何使用框图

  Framing

   画面避免干扰

  Avoiding Mergers

这几条不是构图时的一成不变的原则,而是简单的指导

Think of these not as rules but as simple guidelines

 

 

其实人人都已经有了天生的构图能力,摄影构图只不过是将它表现出来。本教程将帮助提高你的构图能力,然后拍出更好的照片。 

Photographic composition is an expression of your natural sense of design. These guidelines will help you sharpen your natural sense of composition and take better pictures.

 
  
优秀构图导读:简约

Guidelines for Better Photographic Composition: Simplicity

 
首先,也是最重要的准则是简约。看有什么办法在你的图片里将主题重点给予最多的视觉表现。办法之一就是选择一个并不是太复杂的背景,从而这个背景不会将更多的注意力从拍摄主题那里转移走。 

The first and perhaps the most important guideline is simplicity. Look for ways to give the center of interest in your pictures the most visual attention. One way is to select uncomplicated backgrounds that will not steal attention from your subjects.

 

 

电话?

桥?

还是仙人掌?

就这张图片,让我们看看如何从视觉简约规则来修改一下。首先,让我们来确定,什么是我们想表现的重点主题,是公用电话、桥,还是仙人掌。 

Let's see how we can improve this photo by looking for visual simplicity. First let's decide if we want our center of interest to be the public telephone, the bridge, or the cactus.

 

 

我们选择仙人掌作为主题来看看。我们走的更近一些,同时用清晰的天空作为背景,拍下来,通过将图片简约化而提升了图片的表现力。 

We chose the cactus as the main subject. And by moving in closer and using the plain sky as the background, we have simplified and improved the appearance of this photograph.

 

 

上面这两张图片,我们显然已经足够靠近我们的拍摄目标了,但是,左边图片杂乱的背景使得海鸥显得不是很突出。稍稍改变一下你的取景角度,立刻,在蓝色天空的衬托下,海鸥从视觉上就显得很突出了。 

We're certainly close enough to our subject in both pictures, but the busy background on the left camouflages the seagull. Just change your point of view slightly and, presto, your seagull stands with visual prominence against the blue sky.

 

 

拍摄的时候,仔细进行构图,从而让人可以很清楚的知道你的拍摄目的。尽量安排你的拍摄目标在图片上占据主要位置。上面这两张图片,更多的人说喜欢右边的那张,因为左边的停车场与这个古迹显得太冲突了。 

Compose your photograph so that your reason for taking the picture is clearly seen. Arrange other parts of the picture area in such a way as to complement what you choose to be the center of interest. Most of us would prefer the picture on the right because the parking lot tends to contradict the feeling of antiquity related to this mission.

 

 

记住:我们现在讨论的是构图简约化,我们还需要决定的是在我们的画面中应该包含多少内容,还得决定这张图片我们是不是应该横向构图? 

Remember: we're talking about composition simplicity, and here's another decision you'll probably have to make. How much of your subject should you include, and should it be framed horizontally as we have done here?

 

或者还是应该垂直构图,就如这张图片中的黄色图框包围的。由你来决定。 

Or perhaps you'd prefer to frame your subject in the vertical format, as we've indicated with these frame lines. The choice is yours.

 

 


 


 

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